Source: Perspectives on Globalization (Chapters 6 & 7--pg. 116-157)
First, globalization is the process that’s making the people in the world more independent in the economy, socially, politically, in the environment and involving technology. I just needed to clarify that for myself.
Key Issue for Both Chapters:
To what extent should contemporary society respond to the legacies of historical globalization?
To what extent does cultural contact affect people?
-each culture has a different perspective or world view
-different cultures have different values, beliefs, and traditions that influence their thoughts and actions
Contact between indigenous peoples and Europeans involved trade of various things. Indigenous people offered things made from nature and the Europeans offered things like metal utensils. (pg. 120)
In what ways can cultural contact affect people?
-the Beothuk people became extinct by 1829
-the economy of the potlatch culture began to change--> they started to give non-renewable resources as gifts
-in 1884, the Canadian government banned potlatch
-residential schools became a thing of the now
-in some cases, the Europeans wanted to get rid of specific cultures altogether
Can the effects of cultural contact still be felt years later?
-Sudan---In the 1890s, Sudan was given a closed door policy between the north and south. Both Britain and Egypt controlled the land. In 1956, Sudan gained independence from both Britain and Egypt. The door is opened and the government is controlled by the Arabs. They impose Islamic value throughout. The first civil war stretched from 1950s-1970s. The second has been waging since 1980, and hasn’t stopped yet. The Arab government has been accused of genocide.
What were the beginnings of global trading networks?
-the Silk Road---a network of trails that stretched from the Roman Empire to China
-goods were transported to various strategically placed trading posts
-it was kind of like a wire system--many contacts were established in diverse places and cultures
-knowledge, inventions, religious beliefs, artistic styles, languages, and social customs were shared, as well as goods
-cities started to become cultural and artistic centres
-in the 7th century, trade began to shift internationally
-the Arabs began to control international trade
-European governments used trade to increase their wealth
-(the top hats)
-mercantilism was a Eurocentric phenomenon (mercantilism is a theory prevalent in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries asserting that the wealth of a nation depends on its possession of precious metals and therefore that the government of a nation must maximize the foreign trade surplus, and foster national commercial interests, a merchant marine, the establishment of colonies, etc--wealth for monarchs)
What values underlie capitalism?
-according to capitalism, profits are ALWAYS good
-there are varying perspectives on capitalism and the people it benefits
-capitalism is mercantilism for the individual---individual wealth)
-in 18th Century Europe, people wanted change
-alternate economic systems included communism--remember Karl Marx??
Whose values did industrialization reflect?
-England, France, Spain and Belgium were key centres of industrialization
-other European cities became banking and financial centres
-Great Britain became the powerhouse of the industrial revolution
-[textiles---new inventions(the flying shuttle, the spinning jenny and the power loom)]
-weavers were forced to work in factories as a result of new inventions
In what ways did imperialism benefit one people over another?
-during the 1880s a global economy was underway
-the objective was Eurocentric
-trade was CRUCIAL to the success of imperialism
-through trade, the power would increase the wealth which led to greater prestige
-imperialism changed the lives of both indigenous peoples and non-indigenous peoples
-the indigenous peoples were forced to assimilate
-Europeans were incredibly ethnocentric
-one opinion--it was all about the power
Where would Canada be without imperialism and globalization? It probably wouldn’t exist, right? A lot of the perspectives involve ethnocentrism, specifically that of the British Empire. Many believed that assimilation was right, that it would change the world for the better.
There is a loss of identity and culture, and also a loss of perspective. Human rights changed, and so did the people. Think of reserves. They have serious social issues, like poor schooling, poor facilities, a very problematic history of drug and alcohol use, and violence. They have a problematic history, period. Look at residential schools. They were a huge problem. Think of their past with Europeans. Global consequences could include the Civil War in Sudan, and the Darfur genocide. In Canada, official apologies have been released. Monetary compensation has been made, in the case of residential schools. Indigenous self-government has become a very widespread idea. They govern themselves in their own ways.
Look at Eurocentricism. At one point Europeans almost owned the entire world. Slowly, countries gained independence. Some are still trying to gain independence.